<Body><script type="text/javascript"> function setAttributeOnload(object, attribute, val) { if(window.addEventListener) { window.addEventListener('load', function(){ object[attribute] = val; }, false); } else { window.attachEvent('onload', function(){ object[attribute] = val; }); } } </script> <div id="navbar-iframe-container"></div> <script type="text/javascript" src="https://apis.google.com/js/plusone.js"></script> <script type="text/javascript"> gapi.load("gapi.iframes:gapi.iframes.style.bubble", function() { if (gapi.iframes && gapi.iframes.getContext) { gapi.iframes.getContext().openChild({ url: 'https://draft.blogger.com/navbar.g?targetBlogID\x3d26111514\x26blogName\x3dfarnall+cat\x26publishMode\x3dPUBLISH_MODE_BLOGSPOT\x26navbarType\x3dBLUE\x26layoutType\x3dCLASSIC\x26searchRoot\x3dhttp://farnalla63g.blogspot.com/search\x26blogLocale\x3den_US\x26v\x3d2\x26homepageUrl\x3dhttp://farnalla63g.blogspot.com/\x26vt\x3d-5494273469112871874', where: document.getElementById("navbar-iframe-container"), id: "navbar-iframe" }); } }); </script>

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Friday, April 14, 2006

Edward Steichen

Edward Steichen (March-27, 1879-March-25, 1973) was an United States photography, painter, and art gallery and museum curator, born in Luxembourg. In the beginning of the 20th century, Steichen assumed the pictorialism approach and proved himself a master in it. After World War 1, during which he commanded the photographic division of the Expeditionary Forces, he reverted to straight photography, gradually moving into fashion photography. In World War II he served as Director of the Naval Photographic Institute. After the war, Steichen served until 1962 as download adobe acrobat readerthe Director of Photography at New Yorks adobe acrobat free downloadMuseum of Modern Art. Among other, Steichen is appreciated for creating The Family of Man in 1955, a vast exhibition consisting of over 500 photos that depicted life, love adobe acrobat readerand death in 68 countries. (Catalog ISBN 0810961695). As had been Steichens wish, the exhibition acrobat reader downloadwas donated to the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg. It is now permanently housed in avichaiw0l7the Luxembourg village willard2267Clervaux adobe acrobat 70p://www.luxembourg.co.uk/clervaux.html. adobe acrobat downloadartist-stub


Infobox-Game subject-name: Torres image-link image-caption Players build castles and maneuver their knights into and up the castles, receiving points based on the height of the castle. players 2–4 ages 12 + setup-time 5 minutes playing-time > 60 minutes complexity Medium strategy High random-chance Low skills Strategy footnotes Torres is a German-style board game designed by Wolfgang Kramer and Michael Kiesling.

Game Play

Game play revolves around constructing an abstract set of castles set on a grid. Each player is allotted several knight pieces, which are placed within the castles. The higher the knights placement during a scoring round, the greater the payoff for the controlling player. The number of points a player receives per phase is based on the height times the surface area of the highest point of the castle that the knight is standing upon. If the knight is on the 3rd level of a castle, and the castle occupies 5 squares on the board, the player receives 15 points. A king piece is also placed on the board and acts as a bonus modifier to any knights that occupy the same level and castle as the King at the end of a phase. The game is comprised of three different phases, with each phase having three to four rounds each depending on the number of players. Each player has five action points (AP) to spend during a round. The following moves may be performed during a round:
Place a new knight (2 AP) All new knights must sinoncu8ebe adjacent to exist knights, and may only occupy a level equal to or lower than the existing knight on the board.
Place a new castle piece (1 AP) Castle pieces must be placed next to or on top of existing castle pieces. A castles level cannot exceed the surface area, i.e. a castle occupying two squares on the map may only reach two levels in height. New castle pieces may not join two existing castles.
Pick up an action card (1 AP) There are 40 different action cards which allow the player to perform special moves, such as moving the King piece, moving castle pieces, or moving knights diagonally.
Move a knight (1 AP/square) Knights may move one square per AP point spent, but may only move up one level, and may not move diagonally. Knights can go down any number of levels without spending AP.
Gain one victory point (1 AP) Action points may be exchanged for victory points on a one-to-one basis. Players receive a three or four stacks of castle pieces per phase with two or three pieces per stack, depending on the current phase and number of players. A player may only use pieces from one stack per phase, but may transfer unused pieces to another stack for the next phase. After the last phase is reached all unused castle pieces are returned to the common supply and points are calculated. The king gives adobe acrobat readera bonus of five, ten, or fifteen points based on the scoring phase. The number of victory points per player is adobe acrobatkept by individual markers on the acrobat readeredge of acrobat distillerthe game board. Since no two markers can occupy the same victory point number, the last player to occupy the space will automatically be moved ahead by one victory point. The person in last place after each scoring phase may then move the King piece to strong57syanother castle. After the third phase, all victory points free adobe acrobat readerare calculated and the person with the adobe acrobat readerhighest number of points wins the game.

Flag of Liberia

Flag ratio: 10:19~ The Liberian flag bears close resemblance to the flag of the United States, showing the ex-American slave origins of the country. The Liberian flag has similar red and white stripes, as well as a blue square with a white star in the corner. acrobat reader free downloadThe eleven stripes symbolise the signatories of the Liberian Declaration of Independence, red and white symbolising courage and moral excellence. The white star represents the freedom the ex-slaves were given, above the blue square representing the African mainland. The flag is seen on many ships around liwanu1pyqthe world as Liberia offers registration under adobe acrobat downloadits flag. Shipping companies do this to seraphine8tjdavoid taxes and restrictions that other countries enforce. It is estimated that 1600 acrobat reader downloadships fly the Liberian flag as a flag of convenience, this brings in much of the free adobe acrobat readercountrys revenue. nationalflags to edit this table, go to Template:Nationalflags free adobe acrobatadobe acrobat reader>

Cozad Singers

The Cozad Singers are a Kiowa drum group from Anadarko, Oklahoma. The group was founded by Leonard Cozad, Sr. in the 1930s, and consists of Leonard, his sons, grandsons, and other members of the family. Cozad, as they are commonly known, are southern style pow-wow and gourd dance drum, and have released several albums. Their most adobe acrobat downloadrecent recording, California Pow Wow, was released by SOAR Records in June, 2004 in music. Cozad won the 1994 and 1995 Southern Challenge drum championship at the Gathering of Nations pow-wow in Albuquerque, New Mexico. They are often the host southern adobe acrobatdrum at large powwows, including the 1996 Stanford University Powwow and acrobat distillerthe adobe acrobat downloadinaugural National Museum of the American Indian pow-wow in acrobat readerWashington, D.C. in 2002.


295719 Insight magazine article donogbrde1on the 2002 Washington, D.C. devinendyapowwow

Puppet Stayman

In contract bridge, Puppet Stayman is a variation of the Stayman convention which serves two purposes:
it allows the side to find a 5-3 fit when the notrump opener has a 5-card major.
it allows the side to find a 4-4 fit without revealing unnecessary information about the notrump openers hand to the opponents. After 1NT by opener, responder starts by bidding 2 clubs just as in the standard Stayman convention. But the opener now responds 2 hearts or 2 spades only with a 5-card major. Otherwise the response to 2 Clubs is 2 Diamonds which says nothing about 4-card majors. After 1NT-2C-2D, responder then tells opener which 4-card major he is interested in, and opener can either raise or go back to NT. Responder tells opener he has a 4-card major by bidding the other major, thus 1NT-2C-2D-2H shows 4 spades adobe acrobat readerand 1NT-2C-2D-2S shows 4 acrobat readerhearts. Responder can show both 4-card majors by 1NT-2C-2D-2NT. Here is a typical Puppet Stayman auction 1NT-2C-2D-2S-3NT. Note that opener has denied a 5-card major and has denied a 4-card heart suit by not raising hearts after acrobat downloadresponder bid 2S, but openers laurag23badobe acrobatbidding acrobat reader free downloadhas not revealed anything bittensf05about whether acrobat distillerhe has a 4-card spade suit as he would have had to do in a standard Stayman auction. This may be an advantage during the play in 3NT.


Osowa is a neighborhood (in the past village suburb) of Gdansk (a city in Poland) located about 20 kilometers (12 miles) north-west from the center of the city. Mainly filled with family houses,Osowa Lake with sandy beaches and a water sport centers is also found there. The Circle Highway of Tricity goes through Osowa, with an exit there and the shopping mall adobe acrobat free downloadOsowa Center. There adobe acrobat free downloadare bus connections to Oliwa. Population acrobat readeris free acrobat reader8,053 inhabitants on area 13.6 km² (population osmarlexgadobe acrobat readerdensity adobe acrobat592 braddockl581inh/km²). Gdansk

Poet Laureate

A Poet Laureate is a poet officially appointed by a government and often expected to compose poems for state occasions and other government events. The term has in England for centuries been the title of the official poet of the monarch, appointed for life since the time of Charles II of England by letters patent, and before that less formally. Recently the office has been held only for a ten-year term. Its holder still receives a salary as a member of the royal household, but now has no specific poetic duties. Holders of similar positions in other countries have been honoured with similar titles. Poets laureate are appointed by many countries, some US states and the UN. In Britain there is also a Childrens Laureate.

Origin of the term

The laurel, in ancient Greece, was sacred to Apollo, and as such was used to form a crown or wreath of honour for poets and heroes, and this usage has been widespread. The word laureate or laureated thus came in English to signify eminent, or associated with glory. Laureate letters were once the despatches announcing a victory. The term laureate became associated with degrees awarded by European universities. The name baccalaureate for the university degree of bachelor involves this idea. A royal degree in rhetoric, poet laureate was awarded at English and European universities in the middle ages. The term might also refer to the holder of such a degree, which recognised skill in areas of rhetoric, grammar and language. This might be the academic equivalent of a modern day doctorate of poetry. According to Edward Gibbon, Petrarch (1304-74) of Rome, perhaps best known for his sonnets to the fair-haired, blue-eyed Laura, took the title poet laureate in 1341. Medieval English kings included versifiers and minstrels in their retinues, and lent their patronage to poets such as Geoffrey Chaucer and Edmund Spenser. Academic institutions honoured some such men with the poet laureate degree.


From the more general use of the term poet laureate arose its restriction in England an official office of Poet Laureate, the poet attached to the royal household. Charles I of England essentially created the position as it is known today for Ben Jonson in 1617, although Jonsons appointment does not seem to have been formally made. The office was really a development of the practice of earlier times, when minstrels and versifiers formed part of the Kings retinue. Richard I of England had a Versificator Regis (Kings Poet), Gulielmus Peregrinus, and Henry III of England had a versificator (Master Henry). In the 15th century, John Kay, also a versifier, described himself as Edward IV of Englands humble poet laureate. The crown had shown its patronage in various ways, Chaucer had been given a pension and a perquisite of wine by Edward III of England, and Spenser a pension by Queen Elizabeth I. No single authentic definitive record exists of the office of Poet Laureate of England. According to Wharton, Henry I of England paid 10 shillings a year to a Versificator Regis. Geofrey Chaucer 1340-1400 was called Poet Laureate, being granted in 1389 an annual allowance of wine. W. Hamilton classes Chaucer, Gower, Kay, Andrew Bernard, Skelton, Robert Whittington, Richard Edwards, Spenser and Samuel Daniel, as volunteer Laureates. John Skelton studied at Oxford University in the early 1480s, and was advanced to the degree of poet laureate in 1488. The title of laureate was also conferred on him by the University of Louvain in 1492, and by Cambridge University in 1492-3. He soon became famous for rhetoric, satire and translations. In 1488 Skelton joined the court of Henry VII of England, tutored Henry VIII of England and was the official royal poet for most of the next 40 years. He was held in high esteem: But I pray mayster John Skelton, late created poete laureate in the unyversite of Oxenforde, to oversee and correct this sayd booke — Caxton in the preface to The Boke of Eneydos compyled by Vargyle 1490 The title of poet laureate was first conferred by letters patent on Dryden in 1670, two years after Davenants death. The post then became a regular institution, Drydens successor Shadwell originated annual birthday and New Year odes. The poet laureate became traditionally responsible to write and present official poetry to commemorate occasions both personal, such as the monarchs birthday and royal births and marriages, and public, such as coronations and military victories. His activity in this respect has varied, according to circumstances, and the custom ceased to be obligatory after Pyes death. The office fell into some contempt before Southey, but took on a new lustre from his personal distinction and that of Wordsworth and Tennyson. Wordsworth stipulated, before accepting the honour, that no formal effusions from him should be considered a necessity, but Tennyson was generally happy in his numerous poems of this class. On Tennysons death there was a considerable feeling that no possible successor was acceptable, William Morris and Algernon Swinburne being hardly suitable as court poets. Eventually, however, the undesirability of breaking with tradition for temporary reasons, and thus severing the one official link between literature and the state, prevailed over the protests against allowing anyone of inferior genius to follow Tennyson. It may be noted that abolition had been similarly advocated when Warton and Wordsworth died. Edward Gibbon had condemned the positions artificial approach to poetry: From Augustus to Louis, the muse has too often been false and venal: but I much doubt whether any age or court can produce a similar establishment of a stipendiary poet, who in every reign, and at all events, is bound to furnish twice a year a measure of praise and verse, such as may be sung in the chapel, and, I believe, in the presence, of the sovereign. I speak the more freely, as the best time for abolishing this ridiculous custom is while the prince is a man of virtue and the poet a man of genius. — Gibbon: The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire: Chapter LXX (footnote) The salary has varied, but traditionally includes some alcohol. Ben Jonson first received a pension of 100 marks, and later an annual terse of Canary wine. Dryden had a pension of £300 and a butt of Canary wine. Pye received £27 instead of the wine. Tennyson drew £72 a year from the Lord Chamberlains department, and £27 from the Lord Stewards in lieu of the butt of sack.

List of Poets Laureate

British Poets Laureate


Gulielmus Peregrinus employed by Richard I of England
Master Henry was Versificator Regis, or Kings Poet employed by Henry III of England (according to Thomas Warton)
Geoffrey Chaucer (1340-1400)
John Kay (poet) in the reign of Edward IV of England, 1461-1483


Bernard Andre of Toulouse (1450-1522), author of Vita regis Henrici Septimi called himself Poet Laureate under Henry VII of England
John Skelton was the Poet Laureate under Henry VIII of England
Edmund Spenser died in 1599


After Spensers death, the office was awarded on a more regular basis. Once chosen, poet laureates would serve for life. They received an annual pension, and were expected to write poetry for formal occasions.
1599 Samuel Daniel
1619 Ben Jonson
1637 Sir William Davenant (a godson of William Shakespeare)

Appointed by letters patent

1670 John Dryden
1689 Thomas Shadwell
1692 Nahum Tate
1715 Nicholas Rowe (dramatist)
1718 Rev. Laurence Eusden
1730 Colley Cibber
1757 William Whitehead, on the refusal of Thomas Gray
1785 Rev. Thomas Warton, on the refusal of William Mason
1790 Henry James Pye
1813 Robert Southey, on the refusal of Sir Walter Scott
1843 William Wordsworth
1850 Alfred Tennyson
1896 Alfred Austin
1913 Robert Bridges
1930 John Masefield
1967 Cecil Day-Lewis
1972 farnalla63gSir John Betjeman
1984 Ted Hughes (widower of Sylvia Plath), on the refusal of Philip Larkin
1999 Andrew Motion

Scotland and Wales

The Scots Makar is the unpaid equivalent of a poet laureate to represent and promote poetry in Scotland. On 16 February, 2004, Professor Edwin Morgan was named to the post. It was announced in February 2005 that Wales is to have its own national poet. The Arts Council of Wales gave a £5,000 National Lottery grant for the role.

Poets morholtpszcLaureate in other countries

Other countries have implemented similar official positions to that of the British Poet Laureate. The Library of Congress has since 1937 appointed an official Consultant in Poetry to the Library of Congress. An act of Congress changed the name of the position in 1985 to Poet Laureate Consultant in Poetry to the Library of Congress. Other countries (e.g. South Africa) and organisations (e.g. the United Nations) have been keen to follow this lead. Australia, however retains a disdainful attitude. Many US States also have Poets laureate download adobe acrobat readerof US states. The fashion has also spread to some cities. Most holders adobe acrobat reader free downloadof the these titles reach eminence free acrobat readerby adobe acrobat reader free downloadpublic competition, some also have acrobat downloadbrought disrepute by what they do in office, as in the case of download adobe acrobat readerAmiri Baraka, and sometimes have been removed.